Thursday, August 21, 2008

Technical Aspects of Federalism

;+3Lotfsf k|fljlws kIfx?

— s[i0fxl/ k'is/

;+3Lotf M

jt{dfg g]kfnsf] ;+j}wflgs Joj:yf tyf bnLo 3f]if0ff cg';f/ ;+3Lotfsf] kl/j]z cjwf/0ffut ?kdf ePklg /fHo ;+/rgfsf] Ps k|d'v d'2fsf] ?kdf cu|:yfg k|fKt ul/;s]sf]n] ;+3Lotfdf hfg] jf ghfg] d'2f pk/sf] 5nkmn 6'Ëf] nflu;s]sf] 5 . cjsf] k|d'v d'2f eg]sf] ;+3Lotfsf] j}1flgs / g]kfnsf] df6f] ;'xfp+bf] df]8]nsf] lgdf{0f g} k|d'v x'g'kb{5 . t/ /fHo tyf o;sf :j3f]lift /fhg}lts 7]s]bf/x?n] ;fdfGo k|fljlws u[xsfo{ klg k|efjsf/L ?kdf xfn;Dd yfNg g;Sg' ;j{;fwf/0f ;a}sf] 6fpsf] b'vfO{sf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 .

;+3Lotf lsg cfjZos 5 <


!= zf;g, ljsf;, ;|f]t ;fwg / cj;/x?sf] k|efjsf/L ?kdf Joj:yfkg / /fHosf ;a} cfofdx?df cfd gful/ssf] ;xh / ;'ne kx'Fr ug{ Pj+ :yfgLos/0f ug{ .

@= ;+ljwfgn] c+lusf/ u/]sf] ;dfj]zLs/0f tyf nf]stflGqs k|hftfGqLs/0fsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ ;+3Lotf dfkm{t d"t{?k lbg .

#= cfd gful/ssf] /fHodflysf] :jfldTjsf] cg'e"lt t'ngfTds ?kdf a9f]Q/L ug{ u/fpg .

$= wlg–u/Lj, zx/–ufpF / zf;s–zflzt ju{x?sf] aLrdf /x]sf] 7"nf] vf8n Go"g ug{ .

%= /fHo dflysf] s'g} lglZrt kl/jf/ jf ;+:yfsf] s'zf;g jf Psflwsf/ ;dfKt ug{ .

^= ljleGg hftLo, If]qLo, eflifs tyf ;d;fdlos d'2fx?sf] k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkg ug{ .

&= /fHo ;+rfngdf cTolws hg;xeflutf a9fpg .

*= :yfgLo ;|f]t ;fwgsf] kl/rfng / pkof]u k|efjsf/L ?kdf a9fpg .

(= ljz]if k|sf/sf /fhg}lts tyf If]qLo cfjZostf / :jfy{k"lt{ ug{ .

!)= /fHosf] zf;g Joj:yf ;Gt'lnt ?kdf ljs]Gb|Lt ug{ u/fpg .

;+3Lotf lgdf{0fsf cfwf/x? M


k|zf;sLo tyf ;'/IffTds ;DefJotf,

;|f]t ;fwg / cfosf] k'glj{t/0fsf] ;Gt'ng,

e"uf]n / hg;+Vof tyf s"n ufx{:y pTkfbsTj / ;d[l4Tjsf] ;Gt'ng,

ljsf; ljZn]if0f / k'glj{t/0fsf] ;Gt'ng,

g]kfnsf] kl/j]z ;'xfp+bf] j}b]lzs ;kmn gd"gfx?,

hgcfsf+Iff tyf o;sf k|fljlws kIfx?,

cGt/f{li6«o ;Ldf, ;'ljwf / kx'Frsf cfwf/x? .


;+3Lotf lgdf{0f ubf{ g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df hftLo, If]qLo, eflifs jf ;f+:s[lts, hnjfo' nufotsf ;fdflhs ;lxi0f'tf / ;b\efj vNanfpg] s'g}klg cj}1flgs / åGb lgDTofpg] cg'Tkfbs ;"rsf+sx?nfO{ cfwf/ dflgg' x'Fb}g . lsgls g]kfnsf] s'g} o:tf] If]q, lhNnf jf e]if 5}g hxfF Ps dfq hflt, efiff efifL jf Ps} k|sf/sf] df};dsf] pkl:ylt 5 . g]kfnsf k|foh;f] ;a} efux?df jx'hftLo Pj+ jx'eflifs hg;+Vof 5 . ctM s'g} Ps efiffnfO{ jf hftnfO{ dfq cfwf/ agfP/ ;+3Lotf lgdf{0f ubf{ b]z bL3{sfnLg åGbsf] e'd/Ldf k5{ / cGttf]uTjf /fi6«sf] ljv08g tyf ;fj{ef}d;Qf dfly g} 7"nf] vt/f cfOnfU5 / of] ;+3Lotfsf] k|:tfljt k|of]u k"0f{ ?kdf c;kmn x'g hfG5 .

;fFlrSs} eGg] xf] eg] åGb / ck/fw ug{ 7"nf] hdft jf ;d"x rflx+b}g . olb of] s'g} jx'dt hft hflt jf efiffs} cfwf/df ul/of] eg] cNkdt ;d"xx?sf] klxrfg / k|lti7fdf vnn k'Ug] u/L s'g} b'Zk|of; ePdf cNkdt ;d"xn] cfkm\gf] cl:tTj /Iffsf] gfpFdf ePklg xltof/ p7fpg jfWo x'G5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu Ps dw]z Ps k|b]z lj?4 yf?x? p7\g', r"/]efj/ nfUg' / d';ndfgx?n] cfkm"nfO{ dw];L jf dw]zsf eflifs If]qsf] klxrfg eGbf jflx/ v8f ul/g' cflbnfO{ klg lng ;lsG5 . ctM o;k|sf/sf ljz]if ;+j]bgzLn d'2fdf ;a} kIfx? uDeL/ x'g' kb{5 / ;a} k|sf/sf pkl:yt wd{, hfthflt, efiff efifLnfO{ ;se/ ;Ddfgk"j{s / ;dfg ?kdf :yfg k|bfg ul/g' kb{5 . cflv/ ;+3Lotf Pp6f k|efjsf/L zf;g Joj:yfsf] Pp6f k|0ffnL dfq xf] h;sf] k|d'v w]o eg]sf] gful/snfO{ cfly{s, ;fdflhs, z}lIfs, ;f+:s[lts, k|hftflGqs, cf}Bf]lus, k|fljlws ;DkGgtf k|bfg ug'{ g} xf] .

;+3Lotfsf] sfof{Gjog ug{ s] ug]{ <


;/sf/n] ;+ljwfg;ef dfkm{t t'?Gt ;+3Lo ;+/rgf cWoog Pj+ lgdf{0f cfof]usf] u7g u/]/ o; cfof]usf] ;b:ox? v'nf dgf]gogsf] ;"rgf k|sfzg u/L ul/g' kb{5 . o;df b'O6f k|d'v ;ldltx? qmdzM /fhg}lts / k|fljlws ;ldltsf] lgdf{0f u/L lj:t[t sfo{ lgb]{lzsf -detail ToR) lbP/ agfpg] / ;f]sf] ;dGjo / ;'kl/j]If0fsf] nflu ;+;bsf] @% bnsf] k|d'vx?sf] Ps pRr:t/Lo ;ldlt lgdf{0f u/L sfdsfh cufl8 a9fpg] .

k|fljlws ;ldltnfO{ ljleGg /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o lgsfox?;+u k"0f{ ;xof]u / ;Dks{sf] :jtGqtf lbg] .

;+3Lotfsf] cWoogsf] nflu ljleGg zf]wljlw ckgfO{ cfd gful/s tyf o;sf ljz]if1x?af6 /fo ;Nnfx / ;'emfjx? ;+sng ug]{ .

;+3Lotf cWoog cfof]un] # j6f df]8]nx?sf] j[xt ljZn]if0f u/L ;f] dWo] ;jf]{Qd ljsNk / yk @ ljsNk ;lxt l;kmfl/z ug'{kg]{ .

;+3Lotf cWoog cfof]un] /fHo k'g;{+/rgf cfof]u dfkm{t ;+;bdf 5nkmnsf] nflu k|:t't ug]{ / ;efdf kof{Kt 5nkmn u/fO{ k|rlnt sfg"g jdf]lhd k"jf{wf/x? tof/ u/L @ jif{kl5 nfu' x'g]u/L hf/L ug]{ .

tf]lsPsf] @ jif{ cjlwleq /fHosf] /fhg}lts, k|zf;lgs, ;'/IffTds, ljsf;, z}lIfs tyf s"6g}lts ;+/rgfx? l;kmfl/z jdf]lhd qmdzM Joj:yfkg u/L r/0fut ?kdf @ jif{leq ;a} ljBdfg ;+/rgfx?nfO{ ;+3Lo ;+/rgfdf ?kfGt/ ug]{ .

;+3Lo ;+/rgfsf] k|d'v jfwsx? M


cTolws dfqfdf cJoj;flos tyf k/hLjL ;b:ox?sf] eL8 ;+ljwfg ;efdf x'g' .

/fhg}lts kf6L{ tyf ltgsf g]tfx? ;+ljwfg ;ef lgjf{rgsf] d]G8]6 ljkl/t ;xdltdf eGbf ;Qfdf]xsf] ul0ftLo v]ndf Jo:t x'g' .

eflifs, hftLo, If]qLo d'2fx?sf] cgfjZos / cJojl:yt ?kdf /fli6«o cv08tf / cl:tTjdf g} vt/f kg]{ u/L jnhkm\tL k|>o kfpg' .

;dfj]zLtGqsf] unt cy{, JofVof / cj}1flgs, cb"/bzL{ ;f]r h:tf b'ef{Uok"0f{ ;f]r /fHodfly xfjL x'g' .

;+3Lotfdf /fHosf] ?kfGt/0f vlr{nf] x'g' / /fHo xfn pwf/f] / lnnfdLk"0f{ cj:yfdf x'g'.

/fHodf å}w tyf jx'k|zf;lgs Joj:yf xfjL x'g', sfg"glxgtf, 5f8fkg / b08lxgtfsf] b'ef{Uok"0f{ ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf; x'g' .

/fhgLlts kf6L{, tLgsf g]tfx?, pRr kb:y kbflwsf/Lx?, u}/ hjfkmb]xL / xd]zf lhDd]jf/L k~5fpg] hflu/] dfgl;stfaf6 u|l;t x'g' .

/fHosf] gLlt lgdf{0fdf kl/jt{g cj/f]wsx?sf] 7"nf] hdft ;lqmo x'g' .

b]z / hgtfsf] OR5f cfsf+Iff / lxt eGbf ljb]zLx?sf] x:tIf]ksf/L bjfjx? /fHo ;~rfngdf k|>o kfpg' .

b]zdf lj/f]wsf nflu lj/f]wsf] cg'Tkfbs /f]un] /fhgLlt1 nufotsf w]/} lgsfox?df ;+qmldt x'g' .

;+3Lotfsf nflu ;/sf/n] tTsfn rfNg'kg]{ s]xL cfGtl/s sbdx? M


k|To]s dGqfno tyf /fHosf cËx?nfO{ kl/kq u/L ;DalGwt lgsfodf Ps ;d"x÷;ldlt u7g u/L lglZrt ;doleq ;f] dGqfno jf lgsfosf] ;Defljt ;+3Lo ;+/rgf ;DaGwL :j?k l;kmfl/z dfu ug]{ u/fpg] sfo{ zL3| nfu' u/fpg] .

&% lhNnfs} lgjf{rg sfof{nonfO{ :yfgLo Focal Point tf]sL :yfgLo :t/df ljleGg 5nkmn, uf]i7L, ;]ldgf/ ;~rfng u/L /fo ;Nnfx Pj+ ljrf/ ;+sng ug{ lglZrt dfkb08 agfO{ lgb]{zg lbg] .

;/sf/n] d'Vo ;lrjsf] cWoIftfdf Ps k|fljlws ;ldlt u7g u/L s'g s'g lgsfo ;+3Lotfdf hfg] / s'g s'g lgsfo hfg gx'g] -cWofudg, ;}lgs, k|=lh=c=, eG;f/, j}b]lzs ;DaGw, ;Ldf k|zf;g cflb_, s;/L s'g ljlwaf6 hfg] jf/] sfo{of]hgf t}of/ u/L k|f/lDes k|ltj]bg tof/ ug{ u/fpg nufpg] .

;/sf/n] t'?Gt Gofokflnsf / jf/ Pzf]l;Pzgsf ljz]if1x?sf] Ps cfGtl/s ;ldlt lgdf{0f u/L ;+3Lo ;/sf/ / s]Gb|Lo ;/sf/sf] aLr x'g] ;Defljt ;DaGw, ;Ldfx?, sfo{x?, ;dGjo, lhDd]jf/L, bfloTj, sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ OToflbsf] j[xt cWoog ug{ u/fpg] nufpg] .

ljleGg k]zfut ;+3 ;+:yfx?nfO{ klg pgLx?sf] k]zf / sfo{If]q;+u ;DalGwt lgsfox?sf] ;+3Lo ;+/rgfdf ;DefJo k|:tfljt :j?k / /fo ;Nnfx dfUg z'? ug]{ .

pk/f]Qm 5nkmn ul/Psf] h:t} ;+3Lotf ;DaGwL cfGtl/s k|f/lDes k|ltj]bgx?nfO{ kl5 ;+3Lo ;+/rgf /fli6«o cfof]u lgdf{0f x'gf;fy ;/sf/sf] tkm{af6 a'emfpg] h'g lglZrt ?kdf ;f] cfof]unfO{ ;xof]uL Pj+ ;/n agfO{ cfof]usf] sfddf 5l/tf]kgf Nofpg ;lsG5 .

plNnlvt ;+3Lotfsf k|fljlws kIfx?nfO{ /fHosf x/]s lgsfo, JolQm tyf kbflwsf/Lx?n] ;+j]bgzLntfsf ;fy lng' kb{5 . ;j{k|yd /fHon] ;a}nfO{ a'emfpg ;Sg' k¥of] ls of] lsg cfjZos 5, o;sf kmfObfx? s] s] 5g\, ;+3Lotfsf] ;Defljt :j?k s:tf] x'G5, o;df s;/L ?kfGt/0f ug{ ;lsG5 . clg tt\ kZrft o;sf] nflu rflxg] k|of;x? ;a} lgsfoaf6 Psd'i6 eO/xg' h?/L 5 . ;+3Lotf lgdf{0fsf] qmddf ;a} /fhg}lts bn OdfGbf/ ePg, ug'{kg]{ sfo{ ;dodf ;Dkfbg ul/Pg / o;sf nflu cfjZos j}1flgs ;"rsf+sx?nfO{ ckgfOPg eg] b]z ;+3Lotfjfb, nf]stfGqLs/0f / ;dfj]zLtGqsf] gfpFdf bL3{sfnLg o'4sf] e'd/Ldf kg]{5 . ctM /fHon] cfGtl/s ?kdf ePklg ;+3Lotf lgdf{0fsf] nflu cfjZos dfqfdf u[xsfo{df tTsfn h'6\g h?/L 5 .

-gf]6M– n]vs zflGt tyf åGb ljifosf] cg';Gwfgstf{ x'g'x'G5 . pxfF g]kfn ;/sf/sf] u[x dGqfno tyf Peace International gfds u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf;+u ;Dj4 JolQm x'g'x'G5_ .

khpushkar@gmail.com

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