Saturday, December 29, 2007



BY: Prem Raj


Dancing with the Fox & playing on its tune would mean the Fox to turn her in to Lion that has been the policy of India to rule the Asia, as well to govern her own subjects. But this can only be possible when there is supremacy of Jungle's laws prevailing all over. For the Fox it is quite vibrant to change the circumstances by uprooting the values, destroying the systems and injecting own theories to dole out the faith and constitutional norms. Not to let others live in peace, keeps her in a self illusion and gives her an impression of an inflated ruler of a super power.



India fully understands the next world war if erupts this will be basing on capturing the water resources of any country. This may not happen even but yet the same concept has been materialized by the Fox arresting the water sources of Nepal, Pakistan, Bangla Desh & Bhutan to turn their land arid & create energy crisis. This in Nepal is being done on behest of the multi party rule which has already foregone its rights in favour of the Fox to rule its silver wealth (handing over of remaining rivers to India) and it is being done solely on the basis of petty gains of sticking on to the government chairs, that too at the cost of national interests. It has also been learnt through reliable sources that the eight party government is all set to gift the Arun-3, Upper Karnali & Tamakoshi hydropower projects to India, how enslaved the leadership of Nepal is which is always ready to sell its motherland.

The people of Nepal are seriously facing the crisis of petro-products due to the non payment of billion of rupees to IOC (Indian Oil Corporation) which has cut down the supply of products to Nepal. India compels Nepal to purchase the products only from her so the government of Nepal acting like a slaved nation bow before her acceding to its dictates thus not even allowing its private sector to import the petro-products from any other country on a much cheaper rates to break the hegemony of India. The leadership of Nepal is fully involved in the kick-backs & is now bent upon inviting the private sector of India to provide petro-products to Nepal. The very precious assets of Nepal are being hijacked by India like the Bansbari Leather Shoe Factory is under the feet of Indian ownership & the tragic part is the story of a Royal Nepal Air Corporation which is withering due to the cold weapon (commission accrued) used by the governmental instruments of Nepal.

It is very strange with all the miseries having faced by Nepal lashed out by the Fox is still harbouring the Indians to accord them the rights of citizenship. Tomorrow these Indians will mount on the back of Nepal to act like a parasite thus eating the total economy of the country.

Madhav Kumar & Ram Chandra Poudel's daughters are becoming doctors by the kind courtesy of Lainchour Durbar without spending a penny of their own. Many political leaders are running behind the Indian Diplomats for want of the bone to be thrown by them. The RAW has gone so deep in to the secret files of Nepalese ministries like Home, Defence, Water Resources, Commerce,

Communication & the Foreign Affairs, which have been presented in a plate by the respective heads of the ministries, how pitiable it is & how tragic it is! These Nepalese officials are receiving additional pay from the Lainchour Durbar and lead an aristocratic life style. This also applies to the journalists in Nepal who work for the Fox to get money in reward.

In 1989, the Indians came up with the idea of bringing Nepal in to the security umbrella which was strongly opposed by the King Birendra. But now the mess has been created in the name of democracy to safeguard the interests of India. Now the Indian embassy has provided 3 million rupees in aid of forming a Madhesh Brigade being launched in Terai by the Rajendra Mahoto group of Nepal Sadbhavana Party (NSP) as logistics support. More over India is preparing to take and organize training of 200 fighters that too on its own soil.

In any direction the fox likes Nepal to dance that has to go on and on until meeting death or there is still time to pave its own path to liberate from the shackles & touch the morning star to illuminate the lost beauty of Nepal.


Why are you making the water dirty, inquired the wolf, Well am at down stream how can I make it dirty, replied the little lamb, Oh, your father might have made it so last year, hence I have to eat you up, roared the wolf angrily.

This has all along been the philosophy of the Fox to grind the axe. To reach up to Sri Lanka has been its dream thus came with the idea to build a bridge across the Indian Ocean exactly at a place where Lord Ram had built it from the eastern coast of India to Sri Lanka. Thanks to the religious clerics of India which filed the petition in the august Supreme Court while challenging the project on the ground of faith, stating the pursuing of the project by the government would mean destroying a historical bridge that was built by the monkeys' army of Lord Ram. Otherwise it would have been difficult for any one to stop the Fox from building a bridge from the eastern coast of India up to Sri Lanka. Thus in the garb of friendship it would have captured the trade routes while dominating the waters of Sri Lanka & construction of bridge would have meant an intrusion on Sri Lanka.

This is a well known fact that the mother of LTTE is no one else except India who is always ready to give a moral & material support to this rebellious group while at the same time acclaims its sincerity for Sri Lanka. But this was dawned on Sri Lanka that LTTE could launch a successful air raid while covering a distance of 600 Km without being detected by the Indian version radars installed all along the route in Sri Lanka. Instead of being ashamed of its act of cheating the Fox started dictating a sovereign state of Sri Lanka that she can not buy the weapons from Pakistan or China except India. This bossing attitude is a self illusion having intoxicated in the realm of being super power demonstrated by the Fox, which has no force when an independent sovereign state stands on its feet to defend its integrity.

Dancing with the Fox on its tune is nothing but getting entangled in the ropes soaked in cheating, baffling & hoaxing.


Muslims have always been the victim of traitors like Jafar of Deccan, Sadiq of Bengal & most recent name which stands out prominently is Ayesha Siddiqa an author of the book 'Military Inc' who performs Kathak Dance on the tunes of Fox against Pakistan. When the whole country was in a state of gloom and despair on 16th of December she went on writing against the Army to commemorate the fall of Dacca. She passes the compliments to herself, while writing in the same article, "the bulk of the military and its intelligence agencies are geared towards the external threat and perceive India as the most important, in fact the only, enemy. Anyone not favoured by the military is still touted as an Indian agent". There is no doubt about it being an agent of India, Ayesha's writings speak for itself that she has nothing to write but to strike on the back bone of her country. She writes more in the same article, "for the army, every thing that is wrong with Pakistan today is due to India. The conflicts in Swat, Waziristan and Balochistan are attributed to India's intelligence agency, RAW, which is said to be funding and supporting the militants. What is also necessary to understand is if India were supporting all insurgents the Pakistan military would have bled more than it has……….!" And on 28th Dec in the DAWN news paper once again she comments instead of appreciating upon the statement of Pakistan Army Chief who is quite optimistic of the view of calling the year of 2008 as the year of the Pakistani soldier so to be looked after and confidant of awarding more facilities. But this remains indigestible to Ayesha as she can not see the soldiers of Pakistan army prospering or hailing in their life time.

This is also a fact that India after bluffing America has inducted herself in to Afghanistan and rolling on the path of subversive activities. Abdullah Mahsud a Pakistani Taliban fighter kept confined for 5 years in Guantanamo Bay, and then handed over to Afghan government, only returned home to kidnap Chinese with the sole purpose of creating a dent in the strong relationships enjoyed by the two friendly countries. Saboteurs are continuously being trained by the RAW & CIA in Afghanistan to destabilize Pakistan.

As writes Mr.Ahmed Qureshi, in his recent article, "The Plan To Topple Pakistan Military" (Nov 29, 2007), "that book named 'Military Inc' authored by Ayesha Siddiqa was launched with a perfect timings when grounds against the Pakistan Army were softened being gunned down by some of the Pakistani & foreign media to exploit the situation in Pakistan. The book portrays the Pakistani military as an institution that is eating up whatever little resources Pakistan has. Pakistan military's successful financial management, creating alternate financial sources to spend on a vast military machine and build a conventional and nuclear near-match with a neighbouring adversary five times larger - an impressive record for any nation by any standard - was distorted in the book."

In the same article it has been dawned that the author Ayesha developed friendship with the lady Indian diplomat, made frequent visits to India & also stayed in London at a place owned by an individual linked to the Indian diplomat, while leaving her car in the house of the diplomat located in Islamabad. The point here is this: Who assigned her to investigate the Pakistani Armed Forces and present a distorted image of a proud Pakistani nation?"

It is the joint venture of CIA & the RAW, who provided funding for the book and brought her on to the status of writing with an authority on the subject of blackmailing the Pakistan Army every week on the sacred day of Friday for Muslims in the DAWN news paper.
The most disturbing point in the same article is, as he writes, "Another worrying thing is how American officials are publicly signaling to the Pakistanis that Mrs. Benazir Bhutto has their backing as the next leader of the country. Such signals from Washington are not only a kiss of death for any public leader in Pakistan, but Americans also know that their actions are inviting potential assassins to target Mrs. Bhutto." And that's how Mrs. Bhutto was trapped & laid to rest in peace.
The traitors of Asia who are always ready to sell their mother land for their petty gains must remember that the Oxygen of a country will still remain a debt on you even if the country has given you nothing but few ounce of dust in your fist to bury your luck lines.


Fox has a chicken pox face due to its malice running in its blood, this not only speaks of its inner self but has been proved from its acts as well. It is terribly involved in the ethnic, sectarian, linguistic and moreover in the caste ism. The higher class dominating the lower and the rich grumbling on poor is the mass tragedy. Dalits are being treated like dogs and so are they killed in the same manner to be cut in to pieces by all the villagers. Raping a Dalit girl is considered to be an act of valour & virtue. Rather any one belonging to a minority class has to face the dilemma of class discrimination. Such like heinous offences have become a routine in the Hindu dominated society. The story of a young hood days when the Fox praises the voice of a crow to sing a song that held a loaf of bread in its beak, thus loosing the same in favour of the Fox is a constant character of a Fox, which has always tried to snatch the bread from the poor of her country as well as from its neighbours, sometimes by praising & at times by giving threats.

Double standards & inequalities by the Indian Government are the standard norms of India. Atrocities on dalits are on rise. In Khairlanji of Maharashatra a dalit family was paraded naked. In M.P., heads of dalit women were shaven, paraded naked in Kanpur & made to sit on donkeys. The tragic part of the story is the oppressors represent the higher class of Hindu society & are occupying the vantage positions of government, public service & are said to be the big shots.

In the year 2005, there were a total of 967 cases of atrocities against Dalits in Gujarat alone where many were murdered, raped, burnt and seriously injured. In many of these cases FIRs against the criminals, were not registered by the police.

And the fact is that after every four hours, one Indian woman ends her life over dowry. India on record had 218,000 people who committed suicide since 2005 & more than 15 million rural household are landless.

Echoing an ordinary dream of 58 million poor people of India, who are ruled by 15 million corrupt, impotent, and mentally sick feudal, Brahmins & caste maniacs is a sole interior of the Fox. Dalits dancing with the death angel is a favourite prey of the Brahmins.

Few lines from the poem written by Varavara Rao (b. 1940) on "The Caste Ism in India" are unique in its form which describes how the Fox compels Dalits to dance in their lives.

You are born rich
Your agitation sounds creative
Our agony looks violent

You are meritorious
You can break the glass of buses
In a shape
As symmetric as sun's rays

The beautiful roads
Are all yours

We are bare footed
Sweat stinking road rollers
What if we built the roads?
The merit of plan is yours
The credit of contract is yours

We sweep, we clean, our hands are broom
Our sweat is water
Our blood phenyl
Our bones are washing powder

Is menial labor
What merit it has?
What skill?

We are the desolate mothers
Who can give no milk
To the child who bites with hunger

Our births & deaths
Except for census statistics,
What use they have
For the national progress?

You are lucky
You are meritorious


To quote some of the lines of Allama Iqbal, a great philosopher & a poet of the East:

Cut your path with an axe of
Your own,

It is sin to tread the beaten path
Of others,

If you achieve something original
And unique,

Even a sin becomes a virtue



Friday, December 28, 2007

Al-Qaeda says it killed Benazir Bhutto


Al-Qaeda says it killed Benazir Bhutto

by RNW security and defence specialist Hans de Vreij*


Terrorist organisation al-Qaeda has claimed responsibility for the murder of Pakistani politician Benazir Bhutto. In a telephone interview with journalist Syed Saleem Shahzad, al-Qaeda commander Mustafa Abu al-Yazid said that Ms Bhutto was killed because she supported the war against al-Qaeda.

Mustafa al Yazid on al-Jazeera
Mustafa Abu al-Yazid seen here earlier this year on al-Jazeera TV

"This is our first major victory against those who have been siding with infidels in the fight against al-Qaeda and declared a war against mujahedin."Brigadier-General Javed Cheema, spokesperson for Pakistan's interior ministry, accused al-Qaeda of being behind Ms Bhutto's murder on Friday. The Brigadier-General told French news agency AFP that the popular politician was on al-Qaeda's hit list.

Attack to-order
According to al-Yazid, who proclaimed himself commander of al-Qaeda in Afghanistan last May, al-Qaeda ordered Lashkari I Jhangvi, a Pakistani Sunni terrorist group active since the 1990s, to carry out the attack.

The Lashkari I Jhangvi organisation has carried out a number of attacks, including the one in 1999 against then Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and the 2002 kidnapping and murder of US journalist Daniel Pearl.

Lashkari I Jhangvi was banned in 2001 by President Pervez Musharraf and the US put the group on the list of foreign terrorist organisations in 2002.

Earlier this year, activists from the organisation were involved in the occupation of the Red Mosque in Islamabad। Lashkari I Jhangvi members follow a strict interpretation of the Koran and are ideologically close to the Taliban. Many members of the group also fought in Afghanistan.


Al-Qaeda claims responsibility of Bhutto's assassination

Updated: 2007-12-28 15:29

A spokesperson of Al-Qaeda has Thursday claimed responsibility for the killing of former Pakistani prime minister Benazir Bhutto, Italian independent news agency Adnkronos International (AKI) said.

Former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto waves to her supporters at Liaquat Bagh in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, Dec. 27, 2007. Bhutto died Thursday as Party security adviser says she was shot in the neck and chest as she got into her vehicle, then gunman blew himself up. At least 20 others were also killed in a blast that took place as Bhutto left the rally. [Xinhua]

"We terminated the most precious American asset which vowed to defeat the mujahadeen," Al-Qaeda's commander and main spokesperson Mustafa Abu Al-Yazid told AKI in a phone call from an unknown location.

Al-Yazid, who is the main Al-Qaeda commander in Afghanistan, said that the decision to kill Bhutto, who is the leader of the opposition Pakistan People's Party (PPP), was made by al-Qaeda number two Ayman Al-Dhawahiri in October this year, according to AKI.

Bhutto had just addressed a pre-election rally on Thursday in the garrison town of Rawalpindi when a suicide bomber blew himself up.

At least 15 other people were killed in the attack and several others were injured.

Al Qaeda already took responsibility for the first unsuccessful attempt on Bhutto's life back in October.


ISLAMABAD, Pakistan (CNN -- Al Qaeda has claimed responsibility for the assassination of former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, a Pakistani Interior Ministry spokesman said Friday.

An Italian news agency says al Qaeda's Ayman al-Zawahiri began planning the Pakistan killing in October.

A report by the state-run Associated Press of Pakistan quoted ministry spokesman Brig. Javed Iqbal Cheema as saying, "Al Qaeda in a statement has accepted the responsibility of her assassination, as in the past she had been receiving life threats from this terrorist group."

CNN could not independently confirm that al Qaeda has claimed responsibility.

On Thursday, the FBI and Department of Homeland Security issued a bulletin citing an alleged claim of responsibility by the terror network for Bhutto's death, a DHS official said.

But FBI and other law enforcement officials said that the claim is unsubstantiated and that federal officials are not making any comments about its validity.

No one has accepted responsibility for the Pakistani opposition leader's death on radical Islamist Web sites that regularly post such messages from al Qaeda and other militant groups.

Bhutto, 54, was killed Thursday in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, by flying shrapnel stemming from a suicide bombing, the Pakistani government said. Photo See photos from rally and aftermath »

Italian news agency Adnkronos International apparently was the source of the al Qaeda claim, saying the terror network's Afghan commander and spokesman Mustafa Abu Al-Yazid had telephoned the agency with it.

"We terminated the most precious American asset which vowed to defeat [the] mujahedeen," the Italian news agency quoted Al-Yazid as saying.

The agency said that al Qaeda's No. 2 official, Ayman al-Zawahiri, set the wheels in motion for Bhutto's assassination in October.

One Islamist Web site repeated the assertion, but experts in the field don't consider the site to be a reliable source for Islamist messages.

The DHS official said the claim was "an unconfirmed open source claim of responsibility" and the bulletin was sent out at about 6 p.m. Thursday to state and local law enforcement agencies. Video Watch as an analyst says the killing gives al Qaeda "running room" »

The official characterized the bulletin as "information sharing."

FBI spokesman Richard Kolko said the validity of such a claim is "undetermined." Kolko said the FBI and the intelligence community is reviewing it "for any intelligence value."

Ross Feinstein, spokesman for Director of National Intelligence Mike McConnell, said the U.S. intelligence community is monitoring the situation and trying to figure out who is responsible for the assassination.

"We are not in a position to confirm who may be responsible," Feinstein said.

Bhutto had been critical of what she believed was a lack of effort by Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf's government to protect her.

About a week after an October 18 car-bomb attack on her motorcade in Karachi, Pakistan, Bhutto sent an an e-mail to Mark Siegel, her U.S. spokesman, lobbyist and longtime friend.

Siegel forwarded the message to CNN's Wolf Blitzer with instructions not to report on it unless Bhutto was killed.

In the e-mail, Bhutto said Musharraf should bear some of the blame if anything were to happen to her. View timeline »

"I have been made to feel insecure by his minions and there is no way what is happening in terms of stopping me from taking private cars or using tinted windows or giving jammers or four police mobiles to cover all sides cld happen without him," she said in the e-mail।

Musharraf, after an emergency meeting of his top officials Thursday, told his nation the attack was "the work of those very same people with whom we are waging a war. Pakistan's biggest threat comes from these terrorists."

"We will not sit in peace until we finish off these insurgents and terrorists, until we get rid of them from their very roots because in this is Pakistan's success and health," he said। "Otherwise, this is the biggest obstacle in our quest for peace

बेनजीर के बिना पाक का भविष्य

बेनजीर के बिना पाक का भविष्य

दृष्टिकोण.bhutto बेनजीर भुट्टो की हत्या से मुझे गहरा धक्का लगा, लेकिन आश्चर्य बिल्कुल नहीं हुआ। पिछले छह माह में जब भी उनके साथ फोन पर बात हुई या ई-मेलिंग हुआ, उसमें मैंने कई बार कहा कि उनकी जान को खतरा है। वे चुनाव-प्रचार के दौरान अपनी सुरक्षा का विशेष इंतजाम करें, खास तौर से तब जबकि वे सरहदी सूबे में जाएं।

अफगानिस्तान से लगे इस सूबे में तालिबान का वर्चस्व है और इस्लामी कट्टरवादी बेनजीर के खून के प्यासे थे। मई में दुबई में उन्होंने मुझसे कहा कि उन्हें अपनी जान की परवाह नहीं है। वे अगर पाकिस्तान नहीं जाएंगी तो वहां जम्हूरियत आ नहीं सकती। वे आयतुल्लाह खुमैनी की तरह अपने देश से बाहर रहकर जन-आंदोलन खड़ा नहीं कर सकतीं। जो कल हुआ वह 18 अक्टूबर को भी हो सकता था।

पाकिस्तान में लौटते ही उन पर हमला हुआ। वे बाल-बाल बच र्गई लेकिन दो सौ लोग मारे गए। बेनजीर भुट्टो की हत्या तालिबान के सरहदी सूबे या मुहाजिरों के शहर कराची में नहीं, रावलपिंडी में हुई है। रावलपिंडी में पाकिस्तान की फौज का मुख्यालय है। पाकिस्तान की शक्ति-पीठ में पाकिस्तान सर्वथा अशक्त सिद्ध हुआ है। मुशर्रफ के लिए इससे बढ़कर हतक क्या होगी कि बेनजीर भुट्टो की हत्या उनकी नाक के नीचे हो गई।

बेनजीर लगभग उनकी सहयात्री बन चुकी थी। पाकिस्तान के अन्य दलों को शिकायत थी कि बेनजीर ने मुशर्रफ के साथ हाथ मिला लिया है। वे और मुशर्रफ मिलकर पकिस्तान को अमेरिका का मोहरा बना देंगे। बेनजीर ने अपनी चुनाव-सभाओं में यह कहना भी शुरू कर दिया था कि अगर वे चुनी र्गई तो वे आतंकवाद का सफाया कर देंगी। मुशर्रफ के लिए यह दोहरा धक्का है। आतंकवादियों ने यह सिद्ध कर दिया है कि पाकिस्तान में मुशर्रफ का नहीं, उनका राज है।

प्रकारांतर से यह अमेरिका को भी खुली चुनौती है। बेनजीर भुट्टो की हत्या के कारण अगर पाकिस्तान में गहरी अफरा-तफरी फैल गई तो मुशर्रफ को दुबारा आपातकाल ठोकने का बहाना मिल जाएगा, चुनाव स्थगित हो जाएंगे और आने वाले अनेक महीनों तक फौज का एकछत्र वर्चस्व कायम हो जाएगा। बेनजीर की अनुपस्थिति के कारण अमेरिकी रणनीति पंगु हो जाएगी।

यदि नवाज शरीफ के लिए मैदान खुला छोड़ दिया गया तो यह मुशर्रफ और अमेरिका दोनों के लिए खतरनाक होगा। जाहिर है कि मुशर्रफ-समर्थक मुस्लिम-लीग (कायदे-आजम) के अध्यक्ष चौधरी शुजात हुसैन बेनजीर का विकल्प नहीं बन सकते। अगर वे बन सकते होते तो बेनजीर को नेपथ्य से उठाकर मंच पर लाने की जरूरत ही क्यों पड़ती?

मुशर्रफ को मुस्लिम लीग का पंजाबी नेतृत्व नवाज शरीफ का मुकाबला नहीं कर सकता, क्योंकि मियां नवाज पंजाबी अस्मिता के प्रतीक बन गए हैं, इस्लामी कट्टरपंथी भी उनके खिलाफ नहीं हैं और उन पर यह इल्जाम भी नहीं है कि वे अमेरिकी हितों के चौकीदार हैं।

नवाज शरीफ इस समय पाकिस्तानी राष्ट्रवाद के प्रवक्ता बन गए हैं और अब तो उन्होंने बेनजीर की हत्या की सारी जिम्मेदारी मुशर्रफ पर डाल दी है। पाकिस्तान की जनता को भड़काने में वे कोई कोर-कसर नहीं छोड़ेंगे। जाहिर है कि बेनजीर को पर्दे से हटाने में मुशर्रफ का कोई हाथ नहीं हो सकता, लेकिन पीपीपी के कार्यकर्ता अपना गुस्सा मुशर्रफ पर निकालें तो काई आश्चर्य नहीं होगा।

बेनजीर की हत्या के कारण पाकिस्तान के चुनाव स्थगित भी हो सकते हैं, लेकिन अगर स्थगित नहीं हुए तो असली प्रश्न यह है कि अब चुनावों में दम क्या रह गया है? बेनजीर के बिना पाकिस्तान के चुनाव अब सिर्फ एक हाथ की ताली बनकर रह जाएंगे। मियां नवाज तो संसद के उम्मीदवार तक नहीं हैं। यह भी पता नहीं कि बेनजीर की पगड़ी किसके सिर बंधेगी?

यदि उनके पति आसिफ जरदारी मैदान में कूद पड़ेंगे तो यह असंभव नहीं कि पीपीपी को स्पष्ट बहुमत मिल जाए। जैसे इंदिरा गांधी के बलिदान ने राजीव गांधी को 410 सीटें दिलवा दी थीं, वैसे ही बेनजीर का बलिदान आसिफ जरदारी को प्रचंड बहुमत से प्रधानमंत्री बनवा सकता है। भुट्टो-परिवार का दुर्भाग्य है कि जुल्फिकार अली भुट्टो को तो फांसी के फंदे पर चढ़ना ही पड़ा, उनके दोनों बेटों और एक मात्र बेटी को भी संसार से असमय कूच करना पड़ा। भुट्टो परिवार में अब कोई ऐसा नहीं है जो राजनीति की कमान संभाल सके।

बेनजीर के दोनों बेटे और एक बेटी अभी छोटे हैं और उनकी भाभी घिनवा ने एक छोटी-मोटी पार्टी चला रखी है। उनकी एक भतीजी वयस्क है, लेकिन वह बेनजीर के खिलाफ मोर्चा बांधे रखती थीं। ऐसे में आसिफ जी को लोग मैदान में कूदने के लिए बाध्य जरूर करेंगे। हमारे दक्षिण एशियाई देशों के लिए यहां गहरा सबक उभरता है। जो राजनीतिक दल प्राइवेट लिमिटेड कंपनियों की तरह चल रही हैं, उनमें आने वाले इस तरह के अप्रत्याशित संकट पूरी राष्ट्रीय राजनीति को ही खटाई में डाल देते हैं।

बेनजीर भुट्टो की नृशंस हत्या ने पाकिस्तान की राजनीति में तो भूकंप मचा ही दिया है, उसका गहरा असर पूरे दक्षिण एशिया पर भी पड़ेगा। बेनजीर की वापसी से अफगानिस्तान में काफी उम्मीदें जगी थीं। अफागानिस्तान के राष्ट्रपति हामिद करजई ने सितंबर में काबुल में मुझसे कहा था कि यदि बेनजीर पाकिस्तान लौट र्आई और जीत र्गई तो उनसे व्यवहार करना आसान होगा।

वे आतंकवादियों को पकड़ने और सरहदी इलाके को काबू करने में काफी मदद करेंगी। करजई का एक गणित यह भी रहा होगा कि अमेरिका की रहनुमाई में अफगानिस्तान, पाकिस्तान और भारत का लोकतांत्रिक नेतृत्व एक साथ मिलकर काम कर सकता है और उसके ठोस परिणाम जल्द ही सामने आएंगे। यह करने की जरूरत नहीं है कि पिछले 7-8 साल में बेनजीर भारत के काफी निकट आ र्गई थीं।

वे इतने वर्ष पाकिस्तान नहीं र्गई, लेकिन उस दौरान वे दो बार भारत र्आई। मेरे जैसे भारतीय मित्रों से वे अक्सर दुबई, लंदन या वाशिंगटन में मिला करती थीं। फोन और ई-मेल पर उनसे उसी भरोसे के साथ बातचीत हुआ करती थी, जैसे कि भारतीय नेताओं से होती है। यदि वे प्रधानमंत्री बन जातीं तो निश्चय ही भारत के साथ पाकिस्तान के संबंध सुधरते और पूरे दक्षिण एशिया का मानचित्र बदल जाता।

बेनजीर के असमय निधन से भारत के एक भावी मित्र प्रधानमंत्री का अवसान हुआ है। मैं तो गहरी निजी क्षति का अनुभव कर रहा हूं। वे सभी दुर्लभ क्षण याद आ रहे हैं, जब हम लोग सपरिवार साथ-साथ भोजन किया करते थे, साथ-साथ घूमा करते थे और घंटों बतियाते रहते थे। भाई आसिफ जरदारी और बच्चों के लिए मेरा दिल उमड़ा पड़ रहा है।

-लेखक पाकिस्तान-अफगानिस्तान मामलों के विशेषज्ञ हैं और बेनजीर भुट्टो के करीबी मित्र रहे हैं।

बेनज़ीर पर विशेष
गुरुवार, 27 दिसंबर, 2007 को 19:20 GMT तक के समाचार
पाकिस्तान की पूर्व प्रधानमंत्री और पाकिस्तान पीपुल्स पार्टी की नेता बेनज़ीर भुट्टो की एक रैली में हत्या कर दी गई है. रावलपिंडी में उनकी एक रैली पर आत्मघाती हमला हुआ जिसमें 20 अन्य लोग भी मारे गए हैं. बेनज़ीर का शव उनके पैतृक गाँव लरकाना ले जाया जा रहा है.
भारत के प्रधानमंत्री मनमोहन सिंह ने कहा है कि दक्षिण एशिया ने एक बेहतरीन नेता खो दिया है जिसने अपने देश में लोकतंत्र के लिए संघर्ष किया.
संयुक्त राष्ट्र सुरक्षा परिषद ने पाकिस्तान की पूर्व प्रधानमंत्री बेनज़ीर भुट्टो की हत्या की कड़ी भर्त्सना की है. अमरीका ने इसे 'कायरतापूर्ण' कार्रवाई बताया है.
पाकिस्तान की पूर्व प्रधानमंत्री बेनज़ीर भुट्टो की हत्या के बाद उनके समर्थकों ने सिंध प्रांत में जम कर हंगामा किया. जिसमें 11 लोगों की मौत हो गई.

Wednesday, December 26, 2007

"Nepal judiciary is corrupt"

"Nepal judiciary is corrupt"

'Serpent' Charles Sobhraj in jail in Kathmandu

He is one of the world's most notorious killers but Charles Sobhraj is worried and has finally decided to knock the doors of the French president for help. Sobhraj - a French national - shot a letter to Nicholas Sarkozy saying that he was not getting fair trial in Nepal. His lawyer meanwhile has said, the Nepal judiciary is "corrupt".

Sobhraj is worried he may have to spend the rest of his life behind bars in Kathmandu, with the Nepalese Supreme Court postponing its verdict on his life sentence for the third time in two months.

"Nepali judges are corrupt"

His lawyer, speaking excusively to TIMES NOW from Paris, has upped the ante accusing the Nepalese judiciary of corruption.

"There is a lot of corruption in Nepal and there have been many evidences of various sections of people giving money to some judge. I supposed that there could be some 'enemy' that will use this to influence the Pattan court," said Sobhraj's defence lawyer Isabel Peyre.

"There are some people from the department of police who have fabricated documentation - for instance, they announced that they will open a new proceeding against Charles Sobhraj if the SC decides to free him. So I was obliged to deliver a press release on this question because it is completely illegal," said Peyre.

She said it was possible that the American girl he is accused of killing was involved in drug trafficking and had been done away with by her dealer. "I suppose - because in Kathmandu there is a lot of trafficking - that she was dealing with someone to buy drugs and killed by may be the dealer. There are many cases like that in Nepal, but Sobhraj has nothing to do with that," said Peyre.

The man who has allegedly committed over 39 murders in three continents now threatens to go on a hunger strike. His lawyer says the evidence against him for allegedly murdering 2 tourists in Nepal in 1975 is flimsy and that he is being victimised because of his reputation.

"It is completely crazy because there is nothing, nothing in fact, against Sobhraj to prove that he was in Nepal in 1975, in Kathmandu. It is not right that he has been kept in jail in Nepal since 2003 because this man was never in Nepal nor did he kill anybody there. He has just been jailed because he is a legend all over the world," said Peyre.

A French citizen, Sobhraj now wants the International Court of Justice and French President Nicolas Sarkozy to to intervene.

This is a gambit typical of the man, who has always kept himself in the media limelight. The question is, will it work?

Please also see:

Nepal's Judiciary Most Corrupt: Global Corruption Report 2007

(Interview by Yogesh Raman)




When an institution loses its substance, the fall of its edifice is usually a matter of time. Nepal’s monarchy had long become an anachronism in this age of mass politics. Given the rising public sentiment against it, even its ceremonial existence, like that of the British monarchy, is now politically and morally untenable. Events since last year’s pro-democracy movement have made the people’s will abundantly clear. The interim government of Girija Prasad Koirala has now reflected the spirit of the age by agreeing to abolish the institution after next year’s elections to the constituent assembly. It would be wrong, though, to see it as a victory for the Maoists. The former rebels may have articulated the anti-monarchy sentiment more strongly than the country’s other political forces. But the decision is only a logical sequence to the hiatus between the king and the country that has been evident over the past two years. Ironically, King Gyanendra himself stymied the future of the monarchy with his persistent resistance to the people’s democratic hopes. Specious arguments had been offered in order to try and save the constitutional monarchy. Doubts still linger over the Maoists’ motives and long-term strategies. But none of these could be a good enough reason to save the monarchy and imperil the democratic experiment.

However, the abolition of the monarchy is only the first step in a long road ahead. The government’s other decision to rebuild Nepal as a “federal democratic republic” is the real challenge. A new constituent assembly and a new constitution will help strengthen the democratic institutions. But the experiment with federalism could be a harder issue to tackle. Yet, neither the democratic parties nor the Maoists can afford to ignore it. The violent upheavals among the ethnic people in the Terai region could be a major source of future trouble if the issue is not addressed seriously. The demand for a higher representation for ethnic people in parliament has its merits. It need not necessarily be a threat to Nepal’s territorial integrity. Even if some ethnic groups show fissiparous tendencies, the only remedy will be a truly inclusive democracy. Having cleared the doubts about the monarchy’s future, Mr Koirala should waste no more time in announcing the poll schedule. Only a return to democracy can save Nepal from falling completely into the Maoist trap.



Monday, December 24, 2007

Nepal and Desire for Ethnic Autonomy

Nepal and Desire for Ethnic Autonomy

- Bishnu Pathak, PhD *


The history of human race records hundreds of struggles for emancipation against injustice, inequality, restriction, repression, absolutism and so on. In the ancient period, struggles were confined for the means of human survival, for instance food, housing, clothing and so forth. Along with these, as human beings became aware of their basic needs and considered them as basic rights, the forms of struggle changed one after another. The dissident politico-ideological domination in 20th century has now turned to identity-based, cultural, or ethnic conflicts and also as Western versus non-Western blocs in 21st century.

Nepal is not unaffected from such movements either. Its history has recorded dozens of ethnic revolts against the state and its rulers. If we look at the 250 years' history of modern Nepal, we find that ethnic conflict or liberation movement had taken place when Drabya Shah had become the king of Gorkha by defeating the then king Ghale Gurung in a race competition called Lig Lig. His immediate descendent Prithvi Narayan Shah introduced the campaign of "territorial integration" and expanded the boundaries of Nepal. Shifting the capital from Gorkha to Kathmandu , he started feudal rule and proclaimed Nepal as a Hindu state which is still in force.

As Prithvi Narayan Shah strongly believed in Hindu religion and culture, he took steps to impose the belief on the people [1]. He prescribed "one nation and one Hindu Varna system" for all. That may be the reason why he ordered to slash the tips of nose and ears of the people of Kirtipur, his arch opponents, that eventually weighed 18 dharnis [2] (Bhattachan:2000:140). Slavery and bonded labor were widely practiced during his reign, but his descendants banned the practices for bahuns and chhetris by promulgating an act in 1803 [3]. With that, only lower caste people were compelled to work as slaves and bonded laborers. Since then, t he structure of political opportunities in Nepal has been unduly favorable to bahuns and chhetris as against other castes and ethnic groups. When we look at the history of 250 years, we find that they were able to capture more than 80 percent of the seniormost positions in all political, executive, judiciary, legislative, and security dimensions. That has widened the gap between the rulers and the people and it still continues.

The Tamangs revolted twice against King Rana Bahadur Shah and King Girvan Bikram Shah in 1873 [4], but they could not succeed. Yakha Rai says that the region of Majh Kirant also revolted twice against the State in 1807 [5].

Through the bloodshed and violence of Kot Parwa and Bhadarkhal Parwa , Janga Bahadur Rana emerged in the history of Nepal and his brothers ruled the country for 104 years in succession. His younger brother Badri Narsingh, along with Prince Upendra Bikram Shah, had made the first ever secret plot against him but it was all in vain. Later, Janga Bahadur also exposed the plot made by the soldiers of Gurung Regiment for his assassination in May/June 1857 and got the conspirator slashed into pieces by a Gurung soldier at Tundikhel [6]. This action made the Gurung community to revolt against him.

Jamadar Sripati Gurung of Lamjung, a leader among the Gurungs, revolted against Janga Bahadur in 1857 during a military parade at Tundikhel. Later he was killed. Shuk Dev Gurung proclaimed himself a Baudha King against Ranaism. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. He died in 1876 in prison because of inhumane torture. After his arrest, another Gurung led the insurgency against the then Rana ruler proclaiming himself as the Baudha King of Gorkha and Lamjung, but he was later arrested and could not succeed. Thus, successive Gurung revolts were suppressed by force.

Lakhan Thapa, an ex-soldier and the follower of Saint Gyani Dildas of Joshmani faith, opposed discrimination and intolerance of Janga Bahadur under the shield of Manakamana Mai in 1876. Both Thapa and Dildas were taken into custody and their weapons were seized. Lakhan Thapa, Aj Singh, Achhami Magar and seven others were hanged to death, whereas Kanu Lamsal was excused from capital punishment because he was a bahun. Six months later, Gyani Dildas was released from the jail and sent to Darjeeling [7].

Kancha Lama, a Tibetan Guru who visited Kathmandu to pay homage to Swayambhu, initiated Dhamma Sabha. Seeing increasing participation of Bhikshus and people at the Sabha, many of them were taken into custody and forcibly exiled in 1925. Thus, Ranas suppressed the movement of Buddhism as well.

The lower caste in Hindu Varna system called untouchables such as kamis (iron and gold smiths), damais (tailors), and sarkis (shoe-makers) also raised their voices, but soon they were arrested and tortured inhumanely. Protesting against such moves, Ranu Damai from Darjeeling dispatched a letter to Chandra Shamsher pleading how kamis, damais, and sarkis had been living in a miserable situation in the land which was no better than the territory without a king [8].

Besides, the issue of linguistic equality was raised even during the Rana period. When Shiri Thebe Limbu tried to teach Limbu script, he was exiled to Sikkim [9]. The Madhesi (tarai dwellers) people demanded that Hindi be given the status of a national language. K.I Singh's ministry passed a resolution, but could not implement it [10]. Similarly, Madhesi Liberation Front also launched an armed revolution against Panchayati system at Taulihawa in June 1963 [11].

There is no record to show who was the first person to advocate for ethnic and regional autonomy in Nepal. But Janak Lal Sharma writes that Khagendra Jung Gurung, an ex-minister, was the first ever man in Nepal for the cause of ethnic and regional autonomy. As a result, he was kept in jail for 7 years during the Panchayat era. He was once again taken into custody even after the restoration of democracy in 1990.

In order to promote and strengthen their communities and languages, some ethnic organizations were set up during the partyless Panchayat system but they could not function effectively. These were: Tharu Kalyan Kari Sabha in 1950; Nepal Buddha Dharma Sangh in 1953 which later changed into Nepal Tamang Committee; Nepal Manka Khala in 1979; Nepal Magar Langhali Sangh in 1982; Sarbajatiya Mancha in 1982; Utpidit Jatiya Sangh in 1987 and Se-Ta-Ma-Gu-Ra-Li (Sherpa, Tamang, Magar, Gurung, Rai and Limbu). Despite their different interests and objectives, some of their demands were similar with the present Maoists' demands such as the right to self-determination, autonomy and secular state. However, such issues did not come up in a public debate as only one language Nepali was recognized as the official language in the Hindu state. Besides, the repressive policy of the state was always there.

After the restoration of democracy, dozens of ethnic groups, organizations, languages, and religious practices have come into public lime light as the Constitution has guaranteed equality in all quarters. The constitution has envisaged for uplifting the living standards of all the disadvantaged ethnic groups and vulnerable communities belonging to any ethnicity, color, and belief, disallowing all kinds of existing economic, social, political, and cultural discrimination and inequalities. His Majesty's Government has also constituted a National Ethnic Development Committee (NEDC) in 1997 to formulate policies and programs necessary for the socioeconomic uplift of the janajatis.

As a result, a considerable number of ethnic organizations and liberation fronts have come up in the last 17 years to pressure both the government and civil society for the cause of autonomy, secularism, self-determination, and federal structure of government. But, the rights to self-determination and ethnic and regional autonomy have been made most controversial as all the mainstream political forces, particularly Nepali Congress (NC) except CPN (Maoist) are against such liberty for the fear of secession.

Ethnic Policy of CPN (Maoist)

In the process of winning confidence, the pro-communist forces established Nepal Federation of Nationalities (NEFEN) – the umbrella institute of ethnic communities under the founder convener Suresh Ale Magar. Due to different communist ideologies and some tactical differences on the methods of their emancipation, the revolutionary communist wing formed a separate organization called Akhil Nepal Janjati Sangh (All Nepal Nationalities Association) in November 1994 under the convenorship of the same Suresh Ale Magar. As the sizes of the ethnic communities engaged in the People's War got enlarged, the central committee meeting of the CPN (Maoist) decided to put forward the issue of ethnic autonomy along the party's policy of 'Develop Guerrilla Warfare in a Planned Manner' with the advancement of the Second Plan. Later, the politburo meeting of the CPN (Maoist) was held in December 1996 ( Poush 2053 BS) and decided to raise the issues of regional and ethnic autonomy as major issues in their forthcoming movement. Though they are not secessionists, the Maoists have used this assurance to bring together ethnic activists to their ranks. As a result, great numbers of ethnic people are involved in the People's War and the demand of autonomy has become the heart and soul of the Maoists.

After the fusion of some communist revolutionaries of Nepal on November 23, 1990, the First National Unity Convention (FNUC) of Unity Center (UC) was held in November 1991. To extend and heighten the New Democratic People's Revolution, the party put forward class, cultural, religious, linguistic and regional issues as a matter of right to attract greater number of poor, disadvantaged, marginalized, and vulnerable (PDMV) communities. The UC adopted the following policy and program:

  • A secular state would be established by ending the dominance of one particular religion. Religious and linguistic freedom would be guaranteed to all.
  • Instead of establishing one particular language as the national language or the main language, linguistic and ethnic equality would be practiced. The language which is found suitable for the majority of the people would be used as the main language for the purposes of new democratic system. But the policy of promoting it would be discouraged [12].

When UC split into two, the revolutionary line of CPN (Maoist) adopted it as their own party policy, but the party did not have a clear-cut policy on ethnic issues. Later, the party refined its policy on such issues, including the rights of all ethnic communities. The Maoist leader, pseudonymph Comrade Sangham, presented the proposal on Ethnic Policy in Nepal at the First National Conference held in Kathmandu in July 1995. The conference passed the following policies on ethnic matters of interest:

  • Free education in all languages. Media, communiqué, government notices and documents should be available/printed in all languages.
  • Special privilege given to Hindu religion should end. Religion should be separated from the state and secular nation should be declared. Equal freedom should be provided to all religions.
  • Special privilege should be provided to the Dalit community in sectors like education, administration, health, and development works.
  • Ethnic Academy should be established for the preservation and uplift of the language and culture of ethnic communities.
  • Special privilege given to Hindu religion at present in terms of religious festivals and government holidays should end. Instead, equal freedom should be provided to all religions to celebrate their social customs and festivals.
  • Equal opportunity for all the languages should be provided for their uplift and preservation against the present system when there is special support for the Khas language. Likewise, no particular language should be made compulsory. In government works and education sector, the choice of language should be left to the will of the respective ethnic community.
  • Special focus should be given to the communities like Chepang (which are in the verge of extinction) and backward communities like Raute, Raji, Majhi, Darai and Kumbhal. Various programs should be run for their uplift.
  • Discrimination towards the tarai people should be ended. Special efforts should be made for their wider participation in political, administrative and economic sectors without any prejudice. Likewise, socioeconomic programs should be run in the backward sectors of tarai [13].

The 40-point demands put forward to the His Majesty's Government (earlier government) by the United People's Front (UPF) on February 2, 1996 are believed to constitute the core content of the People's War in Nepal , which is divided into three parts such as nationality, democracy, and people's livelihood. In the demands concerning people's democracy, the UPF has given special attention to non-discrimination and the right to self-determination of ethnic communities as follows:

· Declare Nepal as a secular state (Demand No. 18);

· Install self-government for ethnic communities and stop racial discrimination (Demand No. 20);

· Ensure equal opportunity to all dialects and design courses up to higher education in them (Demand No. 22); and

· Abolish regional discrimination and establish autonomy (Demand No. 25).

Talks I, between the government and the Maoists were held at Thakurdwar, Bardia from August 30 to November 9, 2001. Right to self determination; national/regional autonomy and secular state Nepalwere forwarded to address the ethnic, regional and caste contradictions, the negotiation team of CPN (Maoist) put forward the following demands on September 13, 2001 :

Talks II, the CPN (Maoist) slightly modified these demands in the first round of talks which was held at Shankar Hotel, Kathmandu on April 4, 2003 as follows: right to self-determination, ethnic and regional autonomy, and secular nation. The goals and objectives of the CPN (Maoist) were:

  • To address the regional, ethnic, caste, gender, and classical contradictions through progressive and radical, political, social, and economic changes. And also to develop a democratic and prosperous Nepal by seeking solutions to the problems associated with nationality, people's democracy, and livelihood.
  • To create a strong and pro-people national unity by developing democracy and nationality as inseparable parts and accordingly to protect national integrity and sovereignty.

In view of the main political agendas and the process to formulate a new constitution through an election for a constituent assembly, the Talks II proposal read: "The interim government should conduct an election to a Constituent Assembly (CA) within six months. The CA will be inclusive of different groups, castes, regions, and communities". The proposal stressed upon equal representation from all groups and communities in both the parliament and government bodies. It stated:

  • As the supreme representative of the people, an elected people's house of representatives will be formed which will include representatives from all sectors and groups, such as women, dalits, janajatis, ethnic minorities, linguistic groups, different religions, regions, etc…. Accordingly, there will be representation of different groups in the government as well;
  • Regional and ethnic self-governance should be implemented to give people the right to self-determination; and
  • The country should be made a fully secular state.

Utilizing the four-month long truce in 2001 as an opportunity, the CPN (Maoist) formally set up its central level people's government called as United Revolutionary People's Council (URPC) and named its military force as the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Dr. Baburam Bhattarai was appointed as the Coordinator of the 37-member URPC which is a combined product of the Party, PLA, and the fronts representing various regions, nationalities and ethnic groups. In order to guide the armed struggle and to complete the New Democratic Revolution, the CPN (Maoist) had put forward the following 75-point minimum policy and program framed by the URPC. The policies and programs concerned with the ethnic and regional aspirations included in it were as follows:

  • There shall be no discrimination against anybody on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, language, gender etc. and the state shall guarantee equal treatment and opportunities to all. Equal wages for equal work shall be guaranteed to all.
  • The state shall be delinked from religion and it shall be fully secular. Religion shall be regarded as a personal matter of an individual and there shall be no favor for or discrimination against any religion. However, cheating, fraud, corruption, exploitation, oppression, subversive activities etc., on the pretext of religion, shall be curbed.
  • The state shall guarantee equal treatment to all nationalities of the country and their languages. All the nationalities traditionally oppressed by the ruling Aryan- Khas people shall exercise the right to self-determination and their problems shall be resolved within the framework of national autonomy program in the People's New Democratic system according to which all forms of exploitation of the oppressed nationalities shall be ended and they shall exercise their own autonomous rule in the land they inhabit. If a nationality is distributed in more than one area, there shall be more than one autonomous area for it. The House of People's Representatives and People's Committees/Governments elected by them shall be the means of their state power. Except for the People's Army, foreign relations, finance, currency, measurements, communication, international trade, large basic industries, and large hydel projects, all other sectors shall fall under the jurisdiction of the autonomy which will be exercised within the framework of the approved rules and laws.
  • In case of the areas with mixed nationalities, or if there are other nationalities in the autonomous area of a particular nationality, there shall be representation of all for the local state powers on proportional basis.
  • All the oppressed nationalities shall have the right to join the People's Army and they may also form the People's Militia as a security force at the local level under the central command.
  • All the oppressed nationalities shall enjoy the freedom to promote their languages and to preserve or reform their traditional values and systems. The People's Central Government shall assist the people of oppressed nationalities in their political, economic, cultural, and educational development.
  • In the high Himalayan regions such as Karnali region and Seti-Mahakali region‚ which have been regionally oppressed because of unequal economic development‚ there shall be regional autonomy. The nature of regional autonomy shall be basically the same as the autonomy to be enjoyed by the nationalities.
  • The issue of tarai‚ which is inhabited by the people of various linguistic groups, concerns with both: exploitation of the nationalities as well as the region. However, since it is primarily an issue of the exploitation of nationalities, there shall be separate autonomous regions for the nationalities speaking different languages ( e.g., Maithili, Bhojpuri, Awadhi etc.) and all the oppression and unequal treatment meted out to tarai dwellers in general and Madheshi people in particular shall be ended. The prolonged issue of citizenship to the Madheshi people shall be resolved in a scientific, just and democratic manner.

The Central Government of the CPN (Maoist) previously called UPRC that had formed nine autonomous republics [14] is now restructured into 11 federal state committees and 3 federal sub-state committees.

1. Limbuwan State Committee: Taplejung, Panchthar, Ilam, Terhathum, and Dhankuta districts.

2. Kochila State Committee: Jhapa, Morang and Sunsari districts.

3. Kirant State Committee: Solukhumbu, Okhaldhunga, Udayapur, Khotang, Bhojpur and Sankhuwasabha districts.

4. Newa State Committee: Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur districts.

5. Tamang-Saling State Committee: Chitwan, Makawanpur, Sindhuli, Ramechhap, Dolakha, Sindhupalchowk, Kavre, Rasuwa, Nuwakot and Dhading districts.

6. Tamuwan State Committee: Parbat and all districts of Gandaki zone – Gorkha, Lamjung, Tanahu, Syanjya, Kaski and Manang.

7. Magarat State Committee: Rukum, Rolpa, Salyan, Pyuthan, Arghakhanchi, Gulmi, Palpa, Baglung, Myagdi and Mustang districts.

8. Bheri-Karnali State Committee: Humla, Jumla, Mugu, Kalikot, Dolpa, Jajarkot, Dailekh and Surkhet districts.

9. Tharuwan State Committee: Dang, Banke, Bardia, Kailali and Kandhanpur districts.

10. Seti-Mahakali State Committee: Darchula, Baitadi, Dadeldhura, Bajhang, Bajura, Achham and Doti districts.

11. Madhes State Committee : Saptari, Siraha, Dhanusha, Mahottari and Sarlahi districts as Mithila sub-state committee; Rautahat, Bara and Parsa districts as Bhojpura sub-state committee; and Nawalparasi, Rupandehi and Kapilbastu districts as Awadh sub-state committee [15].

The 10-year People's War made aware to PDMV on inclusion, proportionate representation and autonomy across the horizontal and vertical of Nepal. As the CPN (Maoist) deviated a little bit on such crucial issues on the course to assign in understandings, agreements and peace accord, they received profound pressure from their cadres at their extended plenary meetings, ethnic organizations, madhesis and dalits fronts. As a result, the Maoist leadership put forward the 22-point demands including proportionate election system (PES) before going for CA election scheduled for November 22, 2007 ignoring the constitutional provision of 50% first-past-the-post (FPTP) and 50% party-list proportional representation. The Maoists and the UML including a few others finally passed a resolution of PES for the CA by simple majority from the Interim Parliament (IP) calling a special session. The NC voted against the motion.

The Interim Constitution (IC) could not be changed due to the amendment provision of two-thirds majority. The much-awaited protracted negotiations of the 7-party alliance agreed to amend the IC declaring Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic (but first meeting of the CA shall implement the republic) signing 23-understanding on the night of Sunday, December 23, 2007. The political stalemate has finally ended following Maoist withdrawal from the government on September 18, 2007, even though; the resignations were yet to be accepted. On the principal Maoist demand of PES, the high-level meeting of 7-party alliance agreed to hold CA election by mid-April increasing the number of CA members up to 601 (in 2.5 million population): 335 to be elected under PES, 240 through FPTP and 26 cabinet nominees. It has mixed systems – FPTP and PES, to cover 42% and 58% respectively. The Maoists are able to increase the participation of ethnicities, madhesis, dalits and women in CA, but failed to incorporate the voices of PDMV in fully proportionate election system. The Civic Conference, which was organized under the leadership of Padma Ratna Tuladhar, did not succeed as much as it was expected. The Maoist leadership has been receiving heavy pressure from janajatis, dalits and madhesis not to leave their stand on PES. The caste/ethnic, regional and linguistic issues are recognized as issues of struggle of emancipation versus limitation of rights along with autonomy. Indeed, the Maoists led as the progressive force, whereas the NC appeared as the conformist force. It was the CPN (UML) between them that played the pivotal role to minimize the differences of both conflicting parties.

However, there has been a concern that the aspiration for autonomy and right to self-determination encourage ethnic movements for secession that may result in increased anxiety for the disintegration of the cultural/territorial/religious/linguistic unity of Nepal.


* Dr. Pathak has extracted this update from globally circulated book Politics of People's War and Human Rights in Nepal. This update is prepared on the support of Chitra Niraula, Ganga Puri, Joseph Bergson, Rushma Shakya and Rita Chaudhary.

[1] Mulyankan. 2048. Year 10. No. 1. Kathmandu: Mulyankan Prakashan Griha P. Ltd.
[2]About 42 kg.

[3] Tamang, Sitaram. 2000. Marxism and Nationalities' Movement in Nepal . Kathmandu: Pragati Pustak Sadan.
[4] Neupane, Govinda. 2000. Nepalko Jatiya Prashna (Ethnic Question of Nepal ). Kathmandu: Center for Development.
[5] Adhikari, Neelam Shekhar. 2000. Ethnic Movement in Nepal. Kathmandu: Sri Kripashur Sherpa.
[6] Human Rights Year Book 1993. 1993. Kathmandu: INSEC
[7] Human Rights Year Book 1994. 1994. Kathmandu: INSEC.
[8] Human Rights Year Book: 1994
[9] Nepal Janajati Federation:2054
[10] Human Rights Year Book 1994
[11] Devkota, Grishma Bahadur. 2036. Nepalko Rajnitik Darpan. Kathmandu : Umesh Bahadur Devkota.
[12] Sharma, Sudheer. March 2000. " Helicopter Biruddha Maobadi (Maoists are against Helicopter)." in Himal. Year 9, No. 22. Kathmandu : Himalmedia P. Ltd.
[13] Sharma:2000.
[14] The Central Government of CPN (Maoist) formed nine autonomous republics during the People's War on the basis of ethnicity, geo-political and linguistic dimensions. Five of those are based on ethnicity, three are on based on regional location and one is linguistic: 5-ethnic: Kirat Autonomous Region (the mountain and hill areas of the present Mechi, Koshi, and Sagarmatha zones); Tamang-Saling Autonomous Region (the mountain and hill areas of present Bagmati, Narayani, and Janakpur zones except Kathmandu Valley); Tamuwan Autonomous Region (Gandak region); Magarat Autonomous Region (from Kali Gandaki region to the hill areas of present Dhaulagiri, Rapti, and Lumbini zones); and Tharuwan Autonomous Region (western terai areas from present Rapti to Mahakali zones); 3-regional: Bheri-Karnali Autonomous Region (the hill areas of present Bheri and Karnali region); Seti-Mahakali Autonomous Region (the hill areas of present Seti and Mahakali zone); and Madhesh Autonomous Region (Awadh area of mid- tarai and Bhojpur and Mithila Pradesh of eastern tarai); and 1-linguistic - Newa Autonomous Region in Kathmandu Valley. For details see Situation Update 26: February 22, 2007 .
[15] Situation Update: September 47, 2007

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